Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Unizor - Derivatives Example - arcsin(x)

Notes to a video lecture on http://www.unizor.com

Derivative Example -
Inverse Trigonometric Functions

f(x) = arcsin(x)

f I(x) = 1/1−x²


We will use the method ofimplicit differentiation to obtain the formula for a derivative of this function.

Let's start from a definition of function arcsin(x).

The domain of this function is[−1,1] and its values are in[−π/2,π/2].

Then, for any value of the argument x from its domain the function value y is defined as an angle in radians such that
(a) sin(y)=x
(b) −π/2 ≤ y ≤ π/2

The first statement can be expressed as
Since these two functions,A(x)=sin(arcsin(x)) andB(x)=x, are equal within domain [−1,1], their derivatives are equal as well.

The derivative of the A(x) can be obtained using the chain rule for compounded functions.
AI(x)=d/dx[sin(arcsin(x))] =

The derivative of B(x) is trivial.
BI(x) = d/dx[x] = 1

From equality of these two derivatives we conclude

Now let's analyze the expression cos(arcsin(x)).
We know that
sin(arcsin(x))=x and
cos(arcsin(x)) ≥ 0.
cos(arcsin(x)) = √1−x²

The final formula for a derivative is
[arcsin(x)]I = 1/1−x²

A small detail remains whenx = ±1, which results in zero denominator. These are the points where our functionarcsin(x) is not differentiable.
Geometrically, it signifies that tangential lines at both ends,x=−1 and x=1, of the domain of function arcsin(x) are vertical, as can be seen from a graph of this function below:

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